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**Enroll Here: Statistics 101 Cognitive Class Exam Quiz Answers**

**Introduction to Statistics 101**

Statistics is the science of collecting, analyzing, interpreting, and presenting data. It plays a crucial role in understanding patterns and making informed decisions in various fields, from science and medicine to business and social sciences. Here are some fundamental concepts in statistics:

**Data**: Statistics begins with data, which can be numerical or categorical information collected from observations or experiments.**Descriptive Statistics**: These methods are used to summarize and describe features of the data through measures such as averages (mean, median, mode), variability (range, variance, standard deviation), and distribution (skewness, kurtosis).**Inferential Statistics**: This involves making predictions or generalizations about a population based on a sample of data. It includes techniques like hypothesis testing, confidence intervals, and regression analysis.**Probability**: Probability theory is fundamental to statistics, dealing with the likelihood of events occurring in a random phenomenon. It provides the theoretical foundation for statistical methods.**Statistical Methods**: There are various methods for analyzing data, including:**Parametric Methods**: Assumes data follows a specific distribution (e.g., normal distribution) and uses parameters to describe it.**Non-parametric Methods**: Does not assume data follows a particular distribution and is used when assumptions of parametric methods are not met.**Multivariate Analysis**: Techniques that analyze relationships between multiple variables simultaneously.**Bayesian Methods**: Utilizes Bayes’ theorem to update beliefs about the likelihood of events based on new evidence.

**Applications**: Statistics is applied in diverse fields such as economics, sociology, psychology, biology, engineering, and more. It helps in decision-making, research, quality control, forecasting, and policy analysis.

Understanding statistics is essential for critically evaluating information, designing experiments, and drawing reliable conclusions from data. It provides powerful tools for uncovering patterns, testing hypotheses, and making data-driven decisions in a complex world.

**Statistics 101 Cognitive Class Certification Answers**

**Module 1 – Welcome to Statistics Quiz Answers**

**Question 1: Which one of the following is not an example of statistics?**

**The sweet smell of success**- Monthly housing prices in a city
- Traffic noise at a busy intersection
- Annual unemployment rate in a country

**Question 2: Which of the following statements is true? One can estimate the votes for a presidential candidate in a forthcoming election by:**

- Asking your barber
**Conducting a poll of a random sample of the voting age population**- Asking your favourite university professor about who is going to win
- Asking the cab drivers in a city of their vote preference

**Question 3: Which of the following is not a type of data visualization? (Pick the most appropriate answer)**

**An organization chart**- A pie chart
- A time series plot
- A bar chart

**Module 2 – Descriptive Statistics Quiz Answers**

**Question 1: Which of the following is not a cross-sectional data set?**

- Monthly survey of consumer confidence
- National Census conducted every 5 or 10 years
**Weekly data on average temperature**- A survey of student satisfaction conducted at the end of the course

**Question 2: Which of the following is an example of time series data?**

- Number of dolphins in the Pacific Ocean
- Average batting average of a baseball player
- Number of trees in Jardin du Luxemburg in Paris
**Annual average housing price in New York**

**Question 3: Which of the following is an example of multivariate data?**

**Vital signs recorded for a new born baby**- Number of songs played in a day by your favourite radio station
- Daily temperature recorded by a monitoring station in Antarctica
- Number of words spoken by President Donald Trump in his inaugural speech

**Module 3 – Advanced Descriptive Statistics Quiz Answers**

**Question 1: What is a suitable way to display the average income earned by men and women in a city?**

- A scatter plot
- A pie chart
- A histogram
**A bar chart**

**Question 2: What is a suitable way to display relationship between two continuous variables?**

**A scatter plot**- A pie chart
- A histogram
- A bar chart

**Question 3: What’s the best way to display median and outliers?**

- A bubble chart
- A time series plot
**A box plot**- A scatter plot

**Module 4 – Visualization Quiz Answers**

**Question 1: What is the best way to display daily temperature for a city?**

- A histogram
- A pie chart
- A Box plot
**A line plot**

**Question 2: What extra step is needed to display two related time series variables that differ greatly in magnitude?**

**Use two axes to display the lines**- Plot them by colouring the lines with different colours
- Plot the lines with different thickness
- Plot them separately in two charts

**Question 3: When the sum of two or more categories equals 100, what chart type is ideally suited for displaying data?**

- A line chart
**A pie chart**- A box plot
- A histogram

**Module 5 – “From Start to Finish: Beauty Pays Data” Quiz Answers**

**Question 1: When using sample data with weights, it is important to compute statistics by:**

- Filtering the data with the weight variable
**Weighting the data with the appropriate variable**- Ignoring the weights
- None of the above

**Question 2: When multiple observations are reported for each respondent in the data set, to compute statistics for variables about the respondents, one must:**

- Ignore the presence of duplicates and compute statistics as usual
- Weight data by duplicates
**Remove duplicates before running analysis**- None of the above

**Question 3: To be able to trace one’s steps, one must:**

**Generate and record syntax for every command executed for the analysis**- Note steps taken for the analyses in a notebook
- Use mouse for point and click to undertake the analysis
- None of the above

**Statistics 101 Final Exam Answers**

**Question 1: What is meta data?**

- Data about metal fatigue
- The metabolism data in a clinical trial
- The data about metamorphism
**It’s the data about data**

**Question 2: Which of the following is not an example of big data?**

- Number of photographs uploaded to the internet every day
- The emails sent daily from your email provider
**The number of big basketball players in NBA (National Basketball Association)**- Weekly data about individual credit card transactions registered for your local credit card company

**Question 3: SPSS is ideally suited to analyze data stored in:**

- Books as words and paragraphs
- Digital video files of Hollywood movies
**Tables as rows and columns**- Digital audio files of music records

**Question 4: Reproducibility in statistical analysis requires one to use statistical software that supports**:

- Free usage for analysis
**Syntax (script) based analysis**- Tabular output of results
- A point and click environment

**Question 5: Which of the following is an example of categorical data?**

- Number of fire hydrants in a city
- Number of children at a kindergarten
- Length of the river Nile
**Mode of travel to work**

**Question 6: Which of the following is not an example of ordinal data?**

- Ranking of athletes in an Olympic competition
**Number of trees in a park**- Level of happiness on a scale of 1 to 5
- Street numbers

**Question 7: Which of the following is an example of interval data?**

- The ethnicity of a person
- “None”, “Some”, “Frequent” – representing the frequency of exercise
- First, second and third rankings in a sports competition
**Weight**

**Question 8: For a survey of student satisfaction in a course, the population comprises:**

**All students enrolled in the course**- All male students registered in the department
- All A+ students enrolled in the course
- All students registered at the university

**Question 9: A mean is meaningful for the following type of data**

- Audio data
- Ordinal data
**Ratio data**- Categorical data

**Question 10: Median represents a value in the data set where:**

**Half of the observations are above the median and the other half below it**- Most observations are negative
- Half of the observations are known and the other half not known
- Most observations are positive

**Question 11: If the standard deviation of a variable is larger than the mean, the variable depicts:**

- Fluidity
- Low variance
- Smoothness
**High variance**

**Question 12: A histogram is a graphical display of how a variable is**

- Observed
- Displayed
**Distributed**- Recorded

**Question 13: The following type of computation is suited for categorical data:**

**Proportions**- Standard deviations
- Histogram
- Averages

**Question 14: The relationship between two categorical variables can be captured by:**

- Standard deviation
**A crosstabulation**- A bar chart
- A histogram

**Question 15: The probability of getting a 2 by rolling TWO six-sided dice (with sides labeled as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) is**

**1/36**- 1/18
- 2
- 2/36

**Question 16: What is the best way to determine the significance of relationship between two categorical variables?**

- A regression model
- A Pearson Correlation test
**A Chi-square test**- A t-test

**Question 17: If two continuous variables are positively correlated, their scatter plot will depict:**

- A flat line
- A downward sloping curve
**An upward sloping curve**- None of the above

**Question 18: What is the best way to determine the significance of relationship between two continuous variables?**

- A regression model
**A Pearson Correlation test**- A Chi-square test
- A t-test

**Question 19: A good chart should not be missing the following:**

**A self-explanatory variable title**- Thick borders
- A dark background colour
- Bright colours

**Question 20: What is the best practice to display axes labels?**

**Use self-explanatory variables**- Use variable names
- Use bold font to highlight labels
- Don’t use any labels